NUCLEAR AND SUPRANUCLEAR 

GAZE DISTURBANCES

 

Supranuclear vertical gaze palsy

(Video 1, 2, 34, 5, 6, 7, 8)

Single saccadic pulses (saccadic intrusions)

The "round the houses" sign (*)

 

Vertical gaze paralysis

 

Skew deviation

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Supranuclear horizontal gaze palsy

(Video 1, 2)

Blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades

(Video 1, 2)

 

Nuclear horizontal gaze palsy

(Video 1, 2)

 

Periodic alternating gaze deviation

(Video 1, 2)

 

 

Ocular contrapulsion

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Forced vertical deviation

Cogan’s congenital ocular motor apraxia

(Infantile Saccade Initiation Delay Syndrome)

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 

Ocular motor apraxia

(Video 1, 2)

 

No or slow saccades

 

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 

Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)

 

Wall-eyed internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO)

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

One-and-a-half syndrome

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Eight-and-a-half syndrome

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)

Palsy of conjugate horizontal gaze

 

Ping-Pong gaze

(Video 1, 2, 3)

Ocular nodding

 

Convergence spasm or spasm of the near reflex

(Non-organic)

(Video 1, 2)

 

Impaired upgaze in dorsal midbrain (Parinaud’s) syndrome

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)