HORIZONTAL CONCOMITANT HETEROTROPIAS

 

Infantile esotropia syndrome

(Congenital esotropia)

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)

 

Accommodative esotropia

 

Intermittent esotropia

(Video 1, 2)

 

Mixed (partially accommodative) esotropia

 

Nystagmus blockage syndrome

 

Intermittent exotropia

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

HORIZONTAL NON-CONCOMITANT HETEROTROPIAS

 

Abducens (VI) palsy, unilateral

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)

 

Abducens (VI) palsy, bilateral

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Oculomotor (III) nerve palsy

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 

Nuclear third nerve palsy

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Cyclical oculomotor palsy

 

Aberrant third nerve reinnervation

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)

Bilateral abducens ocular neuromyotonia

 

CYCLOVERTICAL HETEROTROPIAS

 

Over-elevation in adduction

(Inferior oblique overaction)

 

Congenital superior oblique paresis

 

Superior oblique paresis

Throclear (IV) nerve palsy

(Non-congenital or acquired)

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 

Bilateral superior oblique paresis

 

Entrapment of the inferior rectus

(Blowout fracture)

 

Superior oblique myokymia

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)

 

Skew deviation

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Ocular tilt reaction

(Video 1, 2)

 

SPECIAL FORMS OF STRABISMUS

 

Co-contractive retraction syndrome type 1 (Duane)

(Video 1, 2)

 

Co-contractive retraction syndrome type 2 (Duane)

 

Co-contractive retraction syndrome type 3 (Duane)

 

Co-contractive retraction with lower cranial neuropathy

(CCRS type 4 or Moebius syndrome)

(Video 1, 2, 3)

Restrictive hypotropia in adduction

(Brown syndrome)

(Video 1, 2, 3)

 

Cavernous sinus syndrome

(Video 1, 2)

Ophthalmoplegia in carotid-cavernous fistula

(Video 1, 2)

Orbital apex syndrome

 

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

(Video 1, 2)

 

Ocular myasthenia gravis

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 

Tensilon test in ocular myasthenia gravis

(Video 1, 2)

Diffuse ophthalmoparesis in botulism

 

Thyroid ophthalmopathy

(Video 1, 2, 3)

Orbital myositis

 

Ocular neuromyotonia

(Video 1, 2, 3)

Bilateral abducens ocular neuromyotonia

 

Miller-Fisher syndrome

(Video 12, 3)

 

Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia 

(Video 1, 2, 3, 4)